Wednesday, April 18, 2012

JUNK MAIL! Sen. Inhofe's sneak attack on clean car, clean gas through amendment on postal service bill

As we have learned by following the action in DC, the oil lobby never seems to sleep. And it appears determined to take every step possible to block EPA from ever setting new low-smog, low-sulfur gasoline standards. (Even though the Obama EPA has put the issue on the back burner, for now, because of the oil-inspired ruckus.)

Their latest attempt is an amendment, by Senator Inhofe of Oklahoma, to legislation reforming the U.S. Postal Service, of all things. See below.

Senator Inhofe wants the Postal Service to bring us dirty air along with the mail.

Let’s hope this amendment goes into the circular file with the rest of the junk mail.







AMENDMENT NO.. _ Calendar No.---

Purpose: To delay Tier 3 motor vehicle emission and fuel standards.


IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES-112th Cong., 2d Sess.

MM
/;).:I?prr1
'1/17/ .){)/
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S.1789

To ii AMENDMIJIT Nt? ZOOS




ostal


- - Al!JoFii_. --- .


---------

Refc and






Viz:

1 On page 227, after the matter after line 7, add the

2 following:

3 SEC. 409. DELAY OF TIER 3 MOTOR VEIDCLE EMISSION AND

4 FUEL STANDARDS.

5 (a) IN GENERAL.-The Administrator of the Envi-

6 ronmental Protection Agency shall not propose any Tier

7 3 motor vehicle emission and fuel standard until the Ad-

8 ministrator determines that the implementation of the

9 standard will not result in-

10 (1) an increase in the price of gasoline;

11 (2) an increase in imports of finished products;

12 or

SIL12233 S.L.C.

2

1 (3) a loss of refining capacity or decrease in re-

2 finery utilization in any Petroleum Administration

3 for Defense District.

4 (b) CONSULTATION.-ln making the determination

5 described in subsection (a), the .Administrator of the Envi-

6 ronmental Protection Agency shall consult with the Sec-

7 retary of Energy and the National Petroleum Council.

Tuesday, April 17, 2012

Environmental groups assail House dirty-air bill

April 17, 2012

The Honorable Ed Whitfield
Chairman
Subcommittee on Energy and Power US House of Representatives Washington, DC 20515

Dear Chairman Whitfield,

Our organizations are writing to express our opposition to the Gasoline Regulations Act of 2012, which would delay vital Clean Air Act protections applicable to the largest polluters, diminish crucial public health benefits for all Americans, and will have no discernible impact on gas prices. The bill has far-reaching, adverse health and environmental impacts, including, among others, fundamentally altering ozone public health protections and delaying a protective Tier 3 clean air program for passenger vehicles.

The bill mandates consideration of costs in the determination of ozone health-based air quality standards, overturning 40 years of clean air protection in America. A strong ozone standard will save thousands of American lives and prevent tens of thousands of asthma attacks every year. The bill would thwart the intent of a unanimous, bipartisan Senate, which in 1970, plainly required the Administrator to establish standards that “are requisite to protect the public health with an adequate margin of safety.” The bill would also overturn a unanimous Supreme Court decision, where the Court, in an opinion by Justice Antonin Scalia, concluded that the Clean Air Act was clear in its requirement that health-based air quality standards be based solely on health science. The Clean Air Act already thoroughly allows for consideration of economic factors, including cost and feasibility, in implementing pollution control strategies to achieve clean air. By including cost in the standard-setting process, this bill would fundamentally undermine these health-based protections, preventing American families from knowing whether the air they breathe is safe.

The bill also seeks to delay updated emission performance standards for petroleum refineries and a protective Tier 3 clean air program for passenger vehicles, which would significantly cut emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds.[1] The cleaner gasoline needed to secure these clean air benefits would cost less than a penny a gallon – contrary to the erroneous, fear-based claims being made by
the petroleum refining industry and its allies about the costs of cleaner, healthier air.

This bill fundamentally undermines these and other health-protective measures, damaging the ability of communities to maintain healthy air and resulting in additional




[1] NACAA, Cleaner Cars, Cleaner Fuel, Cleaner Air: The Need for and Benefits of Tier 3 Vehicle and Fuel Regulations; October, 2011.

sickness and premature death. We cannot afford to delay these vital clean air protections for millions of Americans.

Sincerely,
Center for Biological Diversity
Clean Air Watch Clean Water Action Earthjustice
Environmental Defense Fund
Greenpeace
League of Conservation Voters Natural Resources Defense Council Sierra Club
Southern Environmental Law Center
Union of Concerned Scientists
US Climate Action Network



cc: Members, Subcommittee on Energy and Power

Saturday, April 07, 2012

First Energy PAC contributions in the current election cycle

Downloaded from the Federal Election Commission

Committees And Candidates Supported/Opposed
FIRSTENERGY CORP. POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE

Party: No Associated Party

76 SOUTH MAIN STREET
AKRON, Ohio 44308
Recipient's Name Date Amount Image Number
CONTRIBUTIONS
ALLEN, GEORGE
VIA GEORGE ALLEN FOR US SENATE
06/21/2011 1000.00 11931864214

ALTMIRE, JASON
VIA CITIZENS FOR ALTMIRE
06/13/2011 1000.00 11931864212

ALTMIRE, JASON
VIA CITIZENS FOR ALTMIRE
06/21/2011 2500.00 11931864213

ALTMIRE, JASON
VIA CITIZENS FOR ALTMIRE
09/06/2011 1000.00 11992559226

ALTMIRE, JASON
VIA CITIZENS FOR ALTMIRE
02/15/2012 500.00 12950690303

ALTMIRE, JASON
VIA CITIZENS FOR ALTMIRE
02/15/2012 500.00 12950690303

AUSTRIA, STEVE C
VIA STEVE AUSTRIA FOR CONGRESS
04/22/2011 1000.00 11931305313

AUSTRIA, STEVE C
VIA STEVE AUSTRIA FOR CONGRESS
06/01/2011 1000.00 11931864208

BARRASSO, JOHN
VIA FRIENDS OF JOHN BARRASSO
10/20/2011 1000.00 11971830934

BARRASSO, JOHN
VIA FRIENDS OF JOHN BARRASSO
02/22/2012 1000.00 12950690304

BARROW, JOHN J.
VIA FRIENDS OF JOHN BARROW
09/20/2011 1000.00 11992559232

BARTLETT, ROSCOE G. REP.
VIA BARTLETT FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
02/15/2012 2000.00 12950690302

BEATTY, JOYCE
VIA BEATTY FOR CONGRESS
02/23/2012 2500.00 12950690305

BOEHNER, JOHN A
VIA TFP-FOJB COMMITTEE
02/22/2011 10000.00 11930476827

BROWN, SHERROD
VIA FRIENDS OF SHERROD BROWN
02/15/2012 1000.00 12950690303

BURGESS, MICHAEL C. DR.
VIA MICHAEL BURGESS FOR CONGRESS
09/06/2011 1000.00 11992559228

BUTTERFIELD, G. K.
VIA BUTTERFIELD FOR CONGRESS
02/15/2012 1000.00 12950690300

CAPITO, SHELLEY MOORE MS.
VIA SHELLEY MOORE CAPITO FOR CONGRESS
01/12/2011 5000.00 11930365783

CARDIN, BENJAMIN L
VIA BEN CARDIN FOR SENATE
06/01/2011 1000.00 11931864209

CASEY, ROBERT P JR
VIA BOB CASEY FOR SENATE INC
05/02/2011 2500.00 11931647510

CHABOT, STEVE
VIA STEVE CHABOT FOR CONGRESS
06/01/2011 1000.00 11931864208

CHABOT, STEVE
VIA STEVE CHABOT FOR CONGRESS
02/15/2012 4000.00 12950690299

CORKER, ROBERT P JR
VIA BOB CORKER FOR SENATE 2012
09/29/2011 1000.00 11992559233

CRITZ, MARK
VIA MARK CRITZ FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
05/16/2011 1000.00 11931647510

CRITZ, MARK
VIA MARK CRITZ FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
08/08/2011 1000.00 11932337866

CRITZ, MARK
VIA MARK CRITZ FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
09/20/2011 1000.00 11992559230

CRITZ, MARK
VIA MARK CRITZ FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
02/06/2012 1000.00 12950690297

DENT, CHARLES W REP
VIA CHARLIE DENT FOR CONGRESS
08/08/2011 1000.00 11932337867

DOYLE, MIKE
VIA DOYLE FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
07/06/2011 1000.00 11932241672

DOYLE, MIKE
VIA DOYLE FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
09/06/2011 2500.00 11992559226

DOYLE, MIKE
VIA DOYLE FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
02/22/2012 1500.00 12950690304

ERISA INDUSTRY COMMITTEE POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE; THE (ERIC PAC)
02/22/2011 5000.00 11930476827

FITZPATRICK, MICHAEL G.
VIA FITZPATRICK FOR CONGRESS
06/13/2011 1000.00 11931864211

FITZPATRICK, MICHAEL G.
VIA FITZPATRICK FOR CONGRESS
09/20/2011 1000.00 11992559231

FRELINGHUYSEN, RODNEY P.
VIA FRELINGHUYSEN FOR CONGRESS
09/06/2011 1000.00 11992559227

FUDGE, MARCIA L
VIA MARCIA FUDGE FOR CONGRESS
06/13/2011 725.00 11931864212

FUDGE, MARCIA L
VIA MARCIA FUDGE FOR CONGRESS
09/06/2011 1000.00 11992559227

FUDGE, MARCIA L
VIA MARCIA FUDGE FOR CONGRESS
09/20/2011 3275.00 11992559232

FUND FOR A CONSERVATIVE FUTURE
09/29/2011 5000.00 11992559234

GARDNER, CORY
VIA GARDNER FOR CONGRESS 2012
06/21/2011 5000.00 11931864213

GARRETT, SCOTT REP.
VIA SCOTT GARRETT FOR CONGRESS
07/06/2011 1000.00 11932241672

GERLACH, JIM
VIA JIM GERLACH FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
06/13/2011 1000.00 11931864210

GERLACH, JIM
VIA JIM GERLACH FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
09/29/2011 1000.00 11992559232

GERLACH, JIM
VIA JIM GERLACH FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
02/15/2012 1000.00 12950690300

GIBBS, ROBERT B
VIA GIBBS FOR CONGRESS
08/08/2011 5000.00 11932337867

GRIFFITH, H MORGAN
VIA MORGAN GRIFFITH FOR CONGRESS
06/21/2011 1000.00 11931864214

GRIFFITH, H MORGAN
VIA MORGAN GRIFFITH FOR CONGRESS
02/15/2012 2500.00 12950690302

HOLDEN, TIMOTHY T
VIA FRIENDS OF CONGRESSMAN TIM HOLDEN
09/29/2011 1000.00 11992559233

HOLDEN, TIMOTHY T
VIA FRIENDS OF CONGRESSMAN TIM HOLDEN
11/17/2011 1000.00 11972714181

HOYER, STENY HAMILTON
VIA HOYER FOR CONGRESS
02/22/2011 2500.00 11930476827

INHOFE, JAMES M
VIA FRIENDS OF JIM INHOFE COMMITTEE
11/17/2011 2500.00 11972714182

JOHNSON, BILL
VIA BILL JOHNSON FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
06/01/2011 1000.00 11931864209

JOHNSON, BILL
VIA BILL JOHNSON FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
08/08/2011 1000.00 11932337868

JOHNSON, BILL
VIA BILL JOHNSON FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
02/06/2012 1000.00 12950690297

JOHNSON, BILL
VIA BILL JOHNSON FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
02/06/2012 2000.00 12950690298

JOHNSON, BILL
VIA BILL JOHNSON FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
02/22/2012 3000.00 12950690305

JORDAN, JAMES D.
VIA JIM JORDAN FOR CONGRESS
07/14/2011 1000.00 11932241674

JORDAN, JAMES D.
VIA JIM JORDAN FOR CONGRESS
07/14/2011 1000.00 11932241674

JORDAN, JAMES D.
VIA JIM JORDAN FOR CONGRESS
02/06/2012 1000.00 12950690297

KELLY, GEORGE J JR J. JR.
VIA MIKE KELLY FOR CONGRESS
06/13/2011 1000.00 11931864211

KELLY, GEORGE J JR J. JR.
VIA MIKE KELLY FOR CONGRESS
09/20/2011 1000.00 11992559231

LANCE, LEONARD
VIA LANCE FOR CONGRESS
11/01/2011 2000.00 11972714180

LATOURETTE, STEVEN C
VIA LATOURETTE FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
04/22/2011 1000.00 11931305313

LATOURETTE, STEVEN C
VIA LATOURETTE FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
05/16/2011 2500.00 11931647512

LATOURETTE, STEVEN C
VIA LATOURETTE FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
10/20/2011 1500.00 11971830934

LATOURETTE, STEVEN C
VIA LATOURETTE FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
10/20/2011 5000.00 11971830934

LATTA, ROBERT EDWARD MR
VIA LATTA FOR CONGRESS
08/10/2011 5000.00 11932337869

LATTA, ROBERT EDWARD MR
VIA LATTA FOR CONGRESS
08/10/2011 5000.00 11932337869

LINGLE, LINDA
VIA LINDA LINGLE SENATE COMMITTEE
11/17/2011 1500.00 11972714181

MANCHIN, JOE III
VIA MANCHIN FOR WEST VIRGINIA
04/22/2011 2500.00 11931305312

MANCHIN, JOE III
VIA MANCHIN FOR WEST VIRGINIA
08/08/2011 2500.00 11932337868

MANCHIN, JOE III
VIA MANCHIN FOR WEST VIRGINIA
08/08/2011 5000.00 11932337868

MARINO, THOMAS ANTHONY
VIA MARINO FOR CONGRESS
06/21/2011 1000.00 11931864213

MARINO, THOMAS ANTHONY
VIA MARINO FOR CONGRESS
09/20/2011 1000.00 11992559230

MATHESON, JAMES D
VIA MATHESON FOR CONGRESS
02/22/2012 1000.00 12950690304

MCCONNELL, MITCH
VIA MCCONNELL SENATE COMMITTEE '14
08/08/2011 1000.00 11932337866

MCKINLEY, DAVID B.
VIA MCKINLEY FOR CONGRESS
01/12/2011 5000.00 11930365783

MURKOWSKI, LISA
VIA LISA MURKOWSKI FOR US SENATE
05/16/2011 1000.00 11931647511

MURPHY, TIM
VIA TIM MURPHY FOR CONGRESS
06/01/2011 1000.00 11931864210

MURPHY, TIM
VIA TIM MURPHY FOR CONGRESS
07/06/2011 1500.00 11932241673

MURPHY, TIM
VIA TIM MURPHY FOR CONGRESS
11/17/2011 2000.00 11972714181

MURPHY, TIM
VIA TIM MURPHY FOR CONGRESS
02/15/2012 3000.00 12950690301

NUCLEAR ENERGY INSTITUTE FEDERAL POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE
01/12/2011 5000.00 11930365783

OHIO DEMOCRATIC PARTY
02/09/2011 5000.00 11930476826

OLSON, PETER G
VIA OLSON FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
02/15/2012 1000.00 12950690300

PALLONE, FRANK JR
VIA PALLONE FOR CONGRESS
09/06/2011 1000.00 11992559226

PENGUIN PAC
09/20/2011 5000.00 11992559228

PITTS, JOSEPH R.
VIA FRIENDS OF JOE PITTS
10/20/2011 2500.00 11971830933

PORTMAN, ROB
VIA PORTMAN FOR SENATE COMMITTEE
06/21/2011 2000.00 11931864214

POWERPAC OF THE EDISON ELECTRIC INSTITUTE
01/12/2011 5000.00 11930365784

RAHALL, NICK JOE II
VIA KEEP NICK RAHALL IN CONGRESS COMMITTEE
05/16/2011 1000.00 11931647510

RAHALL, NICK JOE II
VIA KEEP NICK RAHALL IN CONGRESS COMMITTEE
10/20/2011 1000.00 11971830935

RAHALL, NICK JOE II
VIA KEEP NICK RAHALL IN CONGRESS COMMITTEE
11/01/2011 2000.00 11972714180

RAHALL, NICK JOE II
VIA KEEP NICK RAHALL IN CONGRESS COMMITTEE
02/15/2012 1000.00 12950690299

REED, THOMAS W II
VIA TOM REED FOR CONGRESS
09/29/2011 1000.00 11992559233

REHBERG, DENNIS R
VIA REHBERG FOR CONGRESS
10/07/2011 2500.00 11971830933

RENACCI, JAMES B
VIA JIM RENACCI FOR CONGRESS
04/22/2011 1000.00 11931305312

RENACCI, JAMES B
VIA JIM RENACCI FOR CONGRESS
07/06/2011 1000.00 11932241672

RENACCI, JAMES B
VIA JIM RENACCI FOR CONGRESS
08/08/2011 1000.00 11932337867

RENACCI, JAMES B
VIA JIM RENACCI FOR CONGRESS
09/06/2011 1000.00 11992559225

RENACCI, JAMES B
VIA JIM RENACCI FOR CONGRESS
10/07/2011 1000.00 11971830932

RENACCI, JAMES B
VIA JIM RENACCI FOR CONGRESS
10/07/2011 5000.00 11971830932

REPUBLICAN FEDERAL COMMITTEE OF PENNSYLVANIA
02/15/2011 -2500.00 11930476796

REPUBLICAN FEDERAL COMMITTEE OF PENNSYLVANIA
11/17/2011 5000.00 11972714182

RUNYAN, JON
VIA JON RUNYAN FOR CONGRESS, INC
06/01/2011 1000.00 11931864210

RUNYAN, JON
VIA JON RUNYAN FOR CONGRESS, INC
08/22/2011 1500.00 11932337869

RUNYAN, JON
VIA JON RUNYAN FOR CONGRESS, INC
02/15/2012 1000.00 12950690302

RYAN, TIMOTHY J.
VIA TIM RYAN FOR CONGRESS
02/01/2011 1000.00 11930476826

RYAN, TIMOTHY J.
VIA TIM RYAN FOR CONGRESS
09/20/2011 4000.00 11992559228

RYAN, TIMOTHY J.
VIA TIM RYAN FOR CONGRESS
02/15/2012 2500.00 12950690301

SCALISE, STEVE MR.
VIA SCALISE FOR CONGRESS
10/07/2011 1000.00 11971830932

SHIMKUS, JOHN M
VIA VOLUNTEERS FOR SHIMKUS
05/16/2011 1000.00 11931647511

SHIMKUS, JOHN M
VIA VOLUNTEERS FOR SHIMKUS
07/14/2011 2000.00 11932241673

SHIMKUS, JOHN M
VIA VOLUNTEERS FOR SHIMKUS
09/06/2011 1000.00 11992559227

SHUSTER, WILLIAM MR.
VIA BILL SHUSTER FOR CONGRESS
09/20/2011 1000.00 11992559231

SHUSTER, WILLIAM MR.
VIA BILL SHUSTER FOR CONGRESS
09/20/2011 2500.00 11992559230

STEARNS, CLIFFORD BUNDY
VIA FRIENDS OF CLIFF STEARNS
04/22/2011 1000.00 11931305312

STIVERS, STEVE MR.
VIA STIVERS FOR CONGRESS
04/22/2011 1000.00 11931305314

STIVERS, STEVE MR.
VIA STIVERS FOR CONGRESS
07/14/2011 1000.00 11932241674

SUTTON, BETTY S
VIA BETTY SUTTON FOR CONGRESS
06/21/2011 1000.00 11931864212

SUTTON, BETTY S
VIA BETTY SUTTON FOR CONGRESS
08/08/2011 1000.00 11932337866

SUTTON, BETTY S
VIA BETTY SUTTON FOR CONGRESS
09/20/2011 1000.00 11992559229

SUTTON, BETTY S
VIA BETTY SUTTON FOR CONGRESS
09/20/2011 1000.00 11992559229

SUTTON, BETTY S
VIA BETTY SUTTON FOR CONGRESS
11/01/2011 1000.00 11972714180

SUTTON, BETTY S
VIA BETTY SUTTON FOR CONGRESS
02/06/2012 5000.00 12950690298

TERRY, LEE
VIA LEE TERRY FOR CONGRESS
05/16/2011 2500.00 11931647512

THOMPSON, GLENN
VIA FRIENDS OF GLENN THOMPSON
06/01/2011 1000.00 11931864209

THOMPSON, GLENN
VIA FRIENDS OF GLENN THOMPSON
07/14/2011 1000.00 11932241673

THOMPSON, GLENN
VIA FRIENDS OF GLENN THOMPSON
09/06/2011 1000.00 11992559225

THOMPSON, GLENN
VIA FRIENDS OF GLENN THOMPSON
09/20/2011 1000.00 11992559229

TIBERI, PATRICK J.
VIA TIBERI FOR CONGRESS
04/22/2011 2500.00 11931305313

TIBERI, PATRICK J.
VIA TIBERI FOR CONGRESS
09/06/2011 1000.00 11992559225

TIBERI, PATRICK J.
VIA TIBERI FOR CONGRESS
10/20/2011 1500.00 11971830933

TOOMEY, PATRICK JOSEPH
VIA FRIENDS OF PAT TOOMEY
05/16/2011 1000.00 11931647511

TURNER, MICHAEL R REP
VIA CITIZENS FOR TURNER
06/13/2011 1000.00 11931864211

UPTON, FREDERICK STEPHEN
VIA UPTON FOR ALL OF US
12/15/2011 2000.00 12950184583

UPTON, FREDERICK STEPHEN
VIA UPTON FOR ALL OF US
02/06/2012 3000.00 12950690298

WALDEN, GREGORY P MR.
VIA WALDEN FOR CONGRESS
10/20/2011 2000.00 11971830935

WALDEN, GREGORY P MR.
VIA WALDEN FOR CONGRESS
02/15/2012 1000.00 12950690299

WHITFIELD, WAYNE EDWARD
VIA WHITFIELD FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
02/01/2011 1000.00 11930476826

WHITFIELD, WAYNE EDWARD
VIA WHITFIELD FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
05/16/2011 2500.00 11931647512

WHITFIELD, WAYNE EDWARD
VIA WHITFIELD FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
06/01/2011 1500.00 11931864208

WHITFIELD, WAYNE EDWARD
VIA WHITFIELD FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
12/12/2011 2500.00 12950184583

WHITFIELD, WAYNE EDWARD
VIA WHITFIELD FOR CONGRESS COMMITTEE
02/15/2012 2500.00 12950690301

Monday, April 02, 2012

New study: fine particle soot linked to lung cancer; reducing fine particle soot will reduce dirty air deaths

A new study published online in Environmental Health Perspectives ought to catch the attention of policy makers. It finds not only a strong link between fine particle soot and lung cancer, but it argues that cleaning up this stuff further would prevent many thousands of premature deaths a year.

Meanwhile, the Obama administration continues to delay its formal action to update national air quality standards for fine particle soot.

http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info:doi/10.1289/ehp.1104660

Chronic Exposure to Fine Particles and Mortality: An Extended Follow-Up of the Harvard Six Cities Study from 1974 to 2009

Article
Johanna Lepeule, Francine Laden, Douglas Dockery, Joel Schwartz


Abstract Top
Background: Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between fine particles (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5µm, PM2.5) and mortality. However, concerns have been raised regarding the sensitivity of the results to model specifications, lower exposures, and averaging time.

Objectives: We addressed these issues using eleven additional years of follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities study, incorporating recent lower exposures.

Methods: We replicated the previously applied Cox regression, and examined different time lags, the shape of the concentration-response relationship using penalized splines, and changes in the slope of the relation over time. We then conducted Poisson survival analysis with time-varying effects for smoking, sex, and education.

Results: Since 2001, average PM2.5 levels, for all six cities, were below 18µg/m3. Each increase in PM2.5 (10µg/m3) was associated with an adjusted increased risk of all-cause mortality (PM2.5 average on previous year) of 14% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 22), and with 26% (95%CI: 14, 40) and 37% (95%CI: 7, 75) increases in cardiovascular and lung cancer mortality (PM2.5 average of three previous years), respectively. The concentration-response relationship was linear down to PM2.5 concentrations of 8µg/m3. Mortality rate ratios for PM2.5 fluctuated over time, but without clear trends, despite a substantial drop in the sulfate fraction. Poisson models produced similar results.

Conclusions: These results suggest that further public policy efforts that reduce fine particulate matter air pollution are likely to have continuing public health benefits.

Citation: Lepeule J, Laden F, Dockery D, Schwartz J 2012. Chronic Exposure to Fine Particles and Mortality: An Extended Follow-Up of the Harvard Six Cities Study from 1974 to 2009. Environ Health Perspect :-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104660


Received: 25 October 2011; Accepted: 28 March 2012; Online: 28 March 2012
**
Excerpts from the article:

The previous extended follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities study showed an elevated, but not statistically significant risk of lung cancer mortality (Laden et al. 2006), while the present extended follow-up estimated a statistically significant 37% increase in lung cancer mortality (for each 10μg/m3 increase in PM2.5), which is greater than that estimated for both the ACS cohort (14%) (Pope et al. 2002) and a Japanese cohort (27%) (Katanoda et al. 2011). Lungs are one of the organs that are most directly impacted by particulate air pollution. Fine particles, which may also carry toxic chemicals of carcinogenic potential (Laden et al. 2000), can reach lung alveoli where the clearance is slow (Pinkerton et al. 1995) and induce durable pulmonary and systemic inflammation (Riva et al. 2011).

These results agree with the literature (Gehring et al. 2006; Krewski et al. 2009; Puett et al. 2009; Schwartz et al. 2008) and suggest that health improvements can be expected almost immediately after a reduction in air pollution.

our estimated association between PM2.5 and all-cause mortality implies that a decrease by 1μg/m3 in population average PM2.5 would result in 33,932 fewer deaths per year.